Author American Institute of Physics

‘Valley Girl’ dialect expanding to males

The American English speech variant known as uptalk, or Valley Girl speak – marked by a rise in pitch at the ends of sentences – is typically associated with young southern Californian females. New research shows uptalk is expanding to other demographic groups, including males.

Propping open the door to the blood brain barrier

The treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases can be particularly challenging because many of the therapeutic agents such as recombinant proteins and gene medicines are not easily transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).